Disclaimer:  I am not a doctor. This article is just to be used as general information. You should consult a doctor if you are planning to change your diet (or take pills) especially if you have a medical condition.

Antioxidants – Antioxidants help us get rid of free radicals that are formed by cells using oxygen. These free radicals can damage our body in a variety of ways such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. Common antioxidants are vitamins A, C, and E.

Hypervitaminosis – This simply refers to the high storage levels of certain vitamins in the body. It usually stems from supplement intake and can produce toxic symptoms. The exact nature of those symptoms depend on the vitamin that is in question.

Essential Vitamin/Nutrient – Essential vitamins/nutrients are required for your body to work properly, but cannot be created in adequate amounts (or sometimes not at all) by your body. Because of this, these vitamins are normally ingested through either diet or supplements. There is quite a list, but if you are interested you can find more info here.

Carbohydrates – A carbohydrate is simply a type of molecule. Normally in a nutrition sense it refers to either starch or sugars. No carbohydrate is considered an essential nutrient, but it is recommended that they be used a partial source of energy. Good carbohydrates can be absorbed slowly by our body and avoid sudden high blood sugar levels. These are carbs with high levels of fiber, and come from sources such as whole grain and fresh fruits. Bad carbs do the opposite and are usually found in refined and processed foods.

Amino acids – Amino acids are what proteins (the building blocks of cells) are made of and nine are considered essential for humans. There are also some that are considered essential only for certain age groups or conditions. There are around 80 amino acids in nature, but humans only use about 20 of these in our biological functions.